Physical Impact of Alcohol Abuse
Alcohol abuse is a leading risk factor of disease burden globally.1 In 2019, about 14.5 million people 12 years or older suffered from an alcohol use disorder. That same year, it was estimated that 414,000 adolescents between the ages of 12 and 17 had an alcohol use disorder.2
In the United States, the average per capita consumption of alcohol was 2.35 gallons in 2016.3 As of 2021, Nevada has the third-highest average per capita alcohol consumption rate, at 3.46 gallons.4
Alcohol’s effects on the human body are vast, affecting nearly every organ system. Alcohol also stimulates the reward pathways in the brain, activating sensations of pleasure and satisfaction while also acting as a pain killer; these effects can predispose people to develop an addiction. It is important to understand the effects alcohol abuse can have on the body and how you can get help for alcohol addiction.
Intoxication and Impairment
Depending on the amount of alcohol ingested, a person’s blood alcohol concentration (BAC) will increase, and the person may experience an array of symptoms that range from mild to more severe, to even life threatening.5 A person will be legally drunk in the state of Nevada at a BAC of 0.08%.
Mild symptoms of alcohol intoxication with a BAC of 0.05% include:5
- Increased talkativeness.
- Feelings of relaxation.
- Altered perceptions.
- Mild impairment in tasks requiring dexterity.
As the BAC level increases to greater than 0.10%, but less than 0.39%, people can develop more symptoms, such as:5
- Impaired judgment, which can lead to risky behaviors.
- Slurred speech.
- Problems with coordination.
- Changes in mood, personality, and behaviors.
- Nausea and vomiting.
- Forgetting the night’s events.
Severe acute alcohol intoxication can be seen when BAC reaches 0.40% or greater and can lead to the following:5
- Respiratory depression
Long-Term Health Concerns
Over time, excessive alcohol use can lead to the development of serious and life-threatening chronic diseases. In addition to the health concerns detailed below, alcohol damages the following organs:
- Kidneys. When alcohol is ingested, it is metabolized in the liver by a series of enzymes from acetaldehyde to acetic acid, which is then excreted by the kidneys.6
- Liver. The molecule, acetaldehyde, is toxic to the body and can lead to liver cell damage. As the frequency and amount of alcohol consumed increases, damage to the liver also increases, leading to inflammation of the liver cells, known as alcoholic hepatitis. With continued alcohol use, the liver becomes scarred, resulting in alcoholic cirrhosis and even liver cancer.6 Some symptoms of a damaged liver include yellowing of the skin, yellowing of the whites of the eyes, a swelling of the abdomen called ascites, and other serious conditions, including bleeding from veins in the esophagus (esophageal varices) and even death.6
- Alcohol abuse is the second most common cause of acute and chronic pancreatitis in the U.S.7 In the Etiology section It usually takes over 5 years for alcohol abuse to slowly damage the cells of the pancreas, leading to scarring and damage and inflammation. 7 Alcohol functions as an activator of digestive enzymes that the pancreas releases, leading to auto-digestion with alcoholic pancreatitis.7
If left untreated, alcohol abuse can impact future generations. In women who become pregnant and continue to drink alcohol, the alcohol will pass through the blood into the baby’s body through the umbilical cord. The child will suffer from lifelong physical, behavioral, and learning problems called fetal alcohol syndrome. Children with fetal alcohol syndrome may have:8
- Central nervous problems.
- A small head, with a smooth ridge between the upper lip and nose.
- Growth and development problems.
- Problems with memory, attention, learning, and hyperactivity.
- Small and wide-set eyes that may cause vision problems.
Chronic alcohol abuse has also been shown to affect many of the signals involved in keeping blood pressure level normal and thus can lead to an increased incidence of hypertension and heart disease. 9Evidence shows that drinking more than the recommended amount of alcohol of 1 drink for women and 2 drinks for men per day, increased people’s blood pressure and that there was no protective benefit of drinking alcohol.9
Other serious problems related to chronic untreated alcoholism can include:10
- Clouded thinking.
- Reduced physical coordination.
- Cancers of the mouth, throat, breast, and liver.
- Irregular heartbeat and heart attacks.
- Weaker immune system.
These long-term effects can be the result of lasting damage from many years of excessive alcohol consumption.
Alcohol Use Disorder & Dependence
Alcohol use can become more complex because there’s a spectrum of use. Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is the inability to stop or control the use of alcohol despite its negative social, health, and occupational effects.11
Although some people may try to stop drinking as they get too intoxicated, it can be hard to stop Continued alcohol consumption and intoxication can affect impulse control and decision making. Since alcohol stimulates the reward pathways in the brain—chemicals that produce feelings of pleasure and satisfaction—it can quickly change from intoxication into abuse and finally into dependence.11
Drinking excessively, such as binge drinking and heavy alcohol use, can increase the risk of developing an AUD. Drinking at an early age, genetics, a family history of alcoholism, a history of trauma, and other mental health conditions like depression and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder can all increase the risk of AUD.11
Lasting changes in people’s brain and body with AUD can make them vulnerable to relapsing. AUD encompasses alcohol dependence, also known as alcoholism. With the chronic presence of alcohol in the body, the body’s reward and balancing pathways will be dysregulated, resulting in tolerance, and ultimately dependence. With dependence, the individual feels like they will go into withdrawal, physical signs of discomfort, and even psychological distress.11
Alcohol Withdrawal Symptoms
When a person is alcohol dependent, their entire body and regulatory pathways require alcohol to keep them feeling normal. Stopping alcohol immediately when suffering from alcohol dependence can trigger a cascade of symptoms of alcohol withdrawal.12
Mild symptoms of alcohol withdrawal include:12
- Feeling anxious.
- Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
If left untreated, alcohol withdrawal can progress to more severe symptoms culminating in seizures, hallucinations, and delirium tremens (DT). DT is the rapid onset of confusion combined with the previously mentioned physical effects of alcohol withdrawal.12 If left untreated, alcohol withdrawal can be fatal.
If you are thinking about quitting alcohol after a period of consistent or heavy consumption, it is important to speak with a healthcare provider. Your withdrawal symptoms may warrant emergency treatment or inpatient medical treatment.13This is for your safety, as the goal of treatment is to relieve the discomfort from the effects of alcohol withdrawal and to monitor for severe or life-threatening symptoms, so that you may progress into long-term treatment for alcohol dependence and AUD.
Find Help for Alcohol Addiction Near Me
Recovery from alcohol abuse and dependence can seem like a daunting feat if done alone, but with the help of a treatment team, counselors, and support groups, individuals seeking help can stay on the path of recovery.
When seeking a treatment center, it is important to choose a center with treatments geared toward treating the whole person and addressing co-occurring mental illness, physical well-being, as well as providing help with navigating the social challenges that come with alcohol use disorder and addiction.
At American Addiction Centers (AAC), you will be treated for more than your addiction or alcohol abuse. Your unique strengths, challenges, and potential will be harnessed to help you in your treatment for addiction. Your recovery and healing process will take place in a safe environment. At AAC, a team of physicians and nurses will help manage the withdrawal process. You will be treated by compassionate and well-trained mental health clinicians and be given the tools you will need to help you stay sober and live a life in recovery.
AAC offers treatment in many states including Nevada, with treatment options of medical detox, residential and inpatient treatment, intensive outpatient programs, and recovery residences. Other services that will be offered at AAC include individual therapy, group therapy, and medication-assisted treatment (MAT).
Getting the help needed if you or a loved one is actively suffering from AUD or alcohol dependence is especially important. If a loved one has reached out or if you are concerned with your amount of alcohol drinking, call the toll-free, confidential, 24/7 helpline at 702-800-2682 to start your path to recovery.
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